The system used to deliver power from generating station to the load center is called transmission system.
By using transmission line we can transfer the power from one place to another place, conductor are used to transfer the power. according to the distance of the transmission line power to be transmitted.transmission system is mainly divided in two parts,
- Transmission line.
- Distribution line.
In Transmission line bulk of power is transmitted due to the line losses(I²R), which is depend on the distance of transmission line.
Fig shows line diagram of transmission line:
Power Transmission System Consist of Following Stages:-
- Generating station
- Primary Transmission line
- Receiving station
- Secondary transmission line
- Sub station
- Primary distribution line
- Distribution station
- secondary distribution line
- Generating station: electrical power is produced in generating station. which are far away from the consumer or load center. there is large network of line conductor between generating station and consumer .energy is generated by different methods which are following as Thermal power station, Hydro power station, Nuclear power station, Diesel power station, Wind power station, and Solar power station. Generating power capacity of generating station is 11KV due to form factor. By using Step-up transformer 11KV is step-up into 220KV.
- Transmission line: by using transmission line Electrical power is transmit at one end to other end. Here transmission line is connected between generating station to receiving station. its known as primary transmission line. voltage rating of transmission line is high about 220KV. which is step-up by using transformer.
- Receiving station: primary transmission line is connected to the receiving station. transmission line voltage is about 220KV which is step-down to 132KV or 66KV using step-down transformer and that voltage is supply to the substation through the transmission line its known as secondary transmission line.
- Substation: The secondary transmission line is connected to substation. Voltage rating of secondary transmission line is 132KV or 66KV which is step-down to the 11KV by using step-down transformer. This 11KV is deliver to the distribution station.
- Distribution station: The system by which electrical power is deliver to the consumer from the substation is called Distribution line. 11KV which is deliver by substation is directly given to the HT(high tension) consumer like industrial area. that line known as a primary distribution line. Electrical power from primary distribution line is deliver to the various station. its called distribution station. the distribution station is located near to the consumer area. and the voltage is step down 11KV to 400v or 230V by Transformer. that voltage is deliver to the consumer or load center that known as secondary distribution line. Secondary distribution system is 3 phase ,4 wire system.
- Consumer: secondary distribution line is deliver power to the consumer. the voltage rating is 400V or 230V. 400V is used for the industries or commercial load . It is 3 phase , 4 wire system. 230V is used for the domestic load. It is single phase, 2 wire system.
There are 3 types of transmission line :
- Short transmission line.
- Medium transmission line.
- Long transmission line.
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