Principal of Transformer

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Transformer:-

  • Transformer is a device which is transfer a electric power from one circuit to another circuit with Step up and step down the value of current and voltage without changing frequency.
  • Transformer is working on principal of Mutual Induction, it’s state that

 “Mutual induction is Define as When two coil are placed together and passed current through the one coil which is produce the magnetic flux that flux link with another coil. Hence that flux produced the EMF in another coil.”

Basic Construction:-

                  A simple two winding transformer consist of silicon steel core and two winding are placed on it. that two winding are electrically separate but magnetically link through a path of low reluctance as shown in fig. The core is made from thin layer of silicon steel lamination to provide path of low reluctance to magnetic flux. the winding is connected to the supply  mains that winding is called primary winding and which winding is connected to the load side that winding is called secondary winding.  these both winding are connected by common magnetic flux.

Transformer
fig: Basic X’mer circuit

EMF equation :-

                                              E = 4.44 f Φm N

where,   Φm = Maximum Value of Flux in Core

f = Frequency of Supply

N = No. of Turns of Conductor

  •   Transformation ratio is given by :-

transformation ratio

Classification of Transformer :-
  • According to construction.
  1. Core Type
  2. Shell Type
  • According to supply.
  1. Single Phase
  2. Three Phase
  • According to output voltage.
  1. Step-Up
  2. Step-Down
  • According Two application. (Instrumention X’mer)
  1. Potential X’mer
  2. Current X’mer
  • According to commercial .
  1. Power X’mer
  2. Distribution X’mer

According to output voltage Two types of the transformer:-

  1. Step-Up Transformer :- Which is convert the low value of AC voltage in to high value of AC voltage.
  2. Step-Down Transformer:- Which is convert the high value of AC voltage in to low value of AC voltage.
Step-Up Transformer:

                In Step-up transformer primary winding has less no. of turn of conductor and secondary winding has more no. of turns of conductor. when ac supply is given to the primary winging ,hence  According to the law of mutual inductance magnetic flux is produce and that flux link with secondary winding. secondary winding has more no. of turns of conductor so value of voltage is higher then primary voltage and current is lower then primary current. Hence high voltage produce at secondary with same frequency.

step up transformer
fig.: step up transformer
  • N2 > N1 , V2 > V1, I2 < I1 .
  • Then K > 1 is known as step-up transformer.
 Step-Down Transformer:-

                  In Step-down transformer primary winding has more no. of turn of the conductor and secondary winding has less no. of turns of the conductor. when ac supply is given to the primary winging, According to the law of mutual inductance magnetic flux is produce and that flux link with secondary winding.secondary winding has less no. of turns of conductor so value of voltage is lesser then primary voltage and current is greater  then primary current. Hence low voltage produce at secondary with same frequency.

step down transformer
fig; step down transformer
  • N2 < N1 , V2 < V1, I2 > I1 .
  • Then K < 1 is known as step-down transformer.

 

 

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