# Murray Loop Test For Finding Location Of Faults In Underground Cables

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## Murray Loop Test For Finding Location Of Faults In Underground Cables

With the help of Murray loop test, we can easily locate the earth fault and short circuit fault in the underground cable.
At first, we describe how does locate earth fault in underground cable:

The procedure of Earth fault test:

Wheatstone bridgeâ€™sÂ principle is used in murray loop test to find the cable faults. P and Q are the two ratio arms consisting ofÂ resistors. G is a galvanometer. The cable having fault (Rx) is connected to the second cable (Sound cable Rc) through low resistance link at the far end. The Wheatstone bridge is kept in balance by adjusting resistance of the ratio arms P and Q until the galvanometer deflection is zero.

In this test, the sound cable is used to connect in between test end and far end of the faulty conductor.

Lets,Â ABÂ is sound cable,
CDÂ is faulty cable,
The Earth fault occurs a pointÂ F
Far endÂ DÂ point of the faulty cable is connected to far end sound cable pointÂ Bthrough a low resistance.
Two variable resistance ( i.e P. Q ) is connected to the endÂ AÂ point of sound cable andÂ CÂ point of faulty cable respectively.

A battery is connected to pointÂ OÂ and Earth point E through a switchÂ K1. And a galvanometer G is connected in between point A and C through a switchÂ K2.

Let,
RÂ = Resistance of the conductor loop upto fault pointÂ FÂ from the test end pointÂ A, i.e resistance of portionÂ AF.
X= Resistance in between two pointsÂ CÂ andÂ F.
note that,Â P, Q,RÂ andÂ XÂ are the four arms of the Wheatstone bridge.

Now, the switchÂ K1Â andÂ K2Â are closed respectively. Then the variable resistanceÂ PÂ &Â QÂ are varied till the galvanometer shows zero deflection. In the balance position of the bridge, we get

If r is the resistance of each cable, thenÂ R + X = 2r

Let, total length of the cable is l meter, so the resistance per meter will be = r/l, Therefore , we can easily measure the fault point from the faulty point is

Note that the fault resistance Rf is not in the bridge circuit. So, the fault resistance does not affect the balancing of the bridge. But, if the fault resistance is high, the sensitivity of the bridge is reduced.

The procedure of Short circuit test:

It is the same procedure as earth fault test. For short circuit test, battery terminal is connected to the pointÂ OÂ and the other point is connected to another faulty cable.

Let,Â RÂ = Resistance of the conductor loop upto fault point F from the test end point A, i.e resistance of portionÂ AF.
X= Resistance in between two pointsÂ CandÂ F.

note that ,Â P,Q,RÂ andÂ XÂ are the four arms of the Wheatstone bridge. Now, the switchÂ K1Â andÂ K2are closed respectively. Then the variable resistanceÂ P & QÂ are varied till the galvanometer shows zero deflection. In the balance position of the bridge, we get

If r is the resistance of each cable, thenÂ R + X = 2r

Putting the value of resistance and loop length of the cable, we can easily calculate the fault Location.