# Heating of Electrical Machines

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## Heating of Electrical Machines

Whenever a machine transforms energy from one form to another, there is always a certain losses in various parts. Copper losses(I²R losses) in conductors ,Eddy current and hysteresis losses in iron and friction and wind-age losses in mechanical.

The loss takes place in the machine itself, causing

• Increase in temperature
• Reduction in efficiency.

The rise in temperature depends on the balance of heat generation. and that heat is dissipation through the cooling surface.

### Type of heat dissipation in machine

• #### Conduction

Thermal resistivity of sir is for more than the thermal resistivity of insulating material used in machine. If there air bubble present in insulation of machine, it may dangerous affect by heat dissipation. In conduction heat transfer is a heat is transfer by direct contact.

heat dissipation by conduction per unit area of the surface

W = (θ1 – θ2) / ρ.t   watt/m²

where, θ1 = higher temp. of one the surface

θ2 = normal temp. of another surface

ρ = resistivity of material

t = length of medium

if heat is dissipated is X , then total heat dissipation is ,     Wt =  X (θ1 – θ2) / ρ.t

Conduction is most effective in solids.

• ### Convection

Convection is the transfer of heat by the actual movement of the warmed molecules. when any machine gets heated due to gases or liquid in contact with the heated body. the body become lighter rises giving place to other cooled body which is get heated. heat is being dissipated from the heated surface this process is called convection. shown in fig..

when gas or liquid are in contact with the heated body in natural way.  heat dissipation by natural convection per unit are

W = λç θ

Where,  λç = specific heat dissipation

if heat is dissipated is X , then total heat dissipation is  W = λç θX

Radiation is quite different from conduction and convection. The heat transferred by photon of electromagnetic radiation.  the heat is dissipate by radiation from a machine surface , depends on the temperature of surface.

#### Stefan-Boltzmann Law

The heat radiated by a black body per second per unit area is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature.

where, T1 = absolute temperature of hot body

T2 = temperature of absorbing body

σ = stefan constant

e = emissivity (1 for ideal radiation)

If any query or suggestion about heating please comment below or Email on Dipak@electricalidea.com.

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Dipak Suthar has completed BE Electrical. He has more than experience in Inspection of Distribution Substation and more than 1 Year Experience in Electrical Projects (Designing-Technical Review-coordination -Execution). He is Presently work as Senior Design Engineer in Vadodara, India. He is Technical Blogger and Familiar with English, Hindi, Gujarati languages. He wants to Share his experience & Knowledge and helps technical enthusiasts to find suitable solutions and updating themselves on various Engineering Topics.