What is an MPPT Charge Controller?
An MPPT, or maximum power point tracker is an electronic DC to DC converter. Which is optimizes the match between the solar array (PV panels), and the battery bank or utility grid. Simply to Say, they convert a higher voltage DC output from solar panels down to the lower voltage needed to charge batteries.
MPPT or Maximum Power Point Tracking is algorithm that included in charge controllers used for extracting maximum available power from PV module under certain conditions.
The voltage at which PV module can produce maximum power is called maximum power point (or peak power voltage). Maximum power varies with solar radiation, ambient temperature and solar cell temperature.
How MPPT works?
The major principle of MPPT is to extract the maximum available power from PV module by making them operate at the most efficient voltage (maximum power point).
That is to say: MPPT checks output of PV module and compares it to battery voltage. Then MPPT fixes, what is the best power that PV module can produce to charge the battery.
And then MPPT converts it to the best voltage to get maximum current into battery. It can also supply power to a DC load, which is connected directly to the battery.
MPPT is most effective under these conditions:
1> Cold weather, cloudy or hazy days:
Normally, PV module works better at cold temperatures and MPPT is utilized to extract maximum power available from them.
2> When battery is deeply discharged:
MPPT can extract more current and charge the battery. if the state of charge in the battery is lowers. if the state of charge in the battery is lowers.
MPPT Solar Charge Controllers
Several Maximum Power Point Tracking solar controllers can accept high input voltages (up to 600 DC) from your solar array and efficiently down convert the DC voltage to that of your system (e.g. 12, 24, 48V DC, etc).
which means you aren’t losing any generated power and you are able to use what you generate more efficiently. Additionally, using a much higher DC voltage on the input side allows you to use thinner wire, decreasing your wire cost and making installation easier.